Hiroki Kojima, Takashi Ikegami. Organization of a Latent Space structure in VAE/GAN trained by navigation data Neural Networks, Volume 152, August 2022, Pages 234-243


Hiroki Kojima, Dominique Chen, Mizuki Oka and Takashi Ikegami. Analysis and Design of Social Presence in a Computer-Mediated Communication System Frontiers in Psychology, Human-Media Interaction,Front. Psychol., 24 May 2021 [Offloaded Agency]

Hiroki Kojima, Yuzuru Mitsui and Takashi Ikegami. Spatial and Temporal Taylor's Law in 1-Dim Chaotic Maps Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science,Chaos 31, 033111, 2021


Atsushi Masumori,Norihiro Maruyama and Takashi Ikegami. Personogenesis through Imitating Human Behaviors in a Humanoid Robot "Alter3" Frontiers in Robotics and AI7 p.165. 2020 [Homeostasis]

Atsushi Masumori, Lana Sinapayen, Norihiro Maruyama, Takeshi Mita, Douglas Bakkum, Urs Frey, Hirokazu Takahashi and Takashi Ikegami. Neural Autopoiesis: Organizing Self-Boundaries by Stimulus Avoidance in Biological and Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Life, 2020

Lana Sinapayen, Atsushi Masumori and Takashi Ikegami. Reactive, Proactive, and Inductive Agents: An Evolutionary Path for Biological and Artificial Spiking Networks. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2019


Takashi Ikegami, Yasuhiro Hashimoto and Mizuki Oka. Open-Ended Evolution and a Mechanism of Novelties in Web Services. Artificial Life, 2019 25:2, pp.168-177. [Evolution on Web]

Norihiro Maruyama,Daichi Saito, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takashi Ikegami. Dynamic organization of flocking behaviors in a large-scale boids model. Journal of Computational Social Science, 2019, pp.1-8 [Superorganism]

Otto E Rossler, Lisa-Ruth Vial, Frank Kuske, August Nitschke, Takashi Ikegami and Andrei Ujica. Brain Equation and Personogenesis. Clinics in Pediatrics, vol.2 2019, pp.1-11.

Olaf WItkowski and Takashi Ikegami. How to Make Swarms Open-Ended? Evolving Collective Intelligence Through a Constricted Exploration of Adjacent Possibles. Artificial LifeVolume 25 , p.178-197, 2019 [Superorganism]


John Brumley, Charles Taylor, Reiji Suzuki, Takashi Ikegami, Victoria Vesna, Hiroo Iwata. Bird Song Diamond in Deep Space 8k. AI & Society, Septempber 2018, pp.1–15


Lana Sinapayen, Atsushi Masumori, Takashi Ikegami: Learning by stimulation avoidance: A principle to control spiking neural networks dynamics., PLoS ONE,12(2): e0170388. 2017. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami, Yoh-ichi Mototake, Shintaro Kobori, Mizuki Oka, Yasuhiro Hashimoto: Life as an emergent phenomenon: studies from a large-scale boid simulation and web data, Phil.Roy.Soc.,375, pp.1-15, 2017. [PDF]

Hiroki Kojima, Tom Froese, Mizuki Oka, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Takashi Ikegami: A Sensorimotor Signature of the Transition to Conscious Social Perception: Co-regulation of Active and Passive Touch, Frontiers in Psychology, 8.01778, 2017. [PDF] [Offloaded Agency]


Tim Taylor, Mark Bedau, Alastair Channon, David Ackley, Wolfgang Banzhaf, Guillaume Beslon, Emily Dolson, Tom Froese, Simon Hickinbotham, Takashi Ikegami, Barry McMullin, Norman Packard, Steen Rasmussen, Nathaniel Virgo, Eran Agmon, Edward Clark, Simon McGregor, Charles Ofria, Glen Ropella, Lee Spector, Kenneth O. Stanley, Adam Stanton, Christopher Timperley, Anya Vostinar and Michael Wiser: Open-Ended Evolution: Perspectives from the OEE Workshop in York, Artificial Life vol 22(3) pp. 408-423, 2016. [PDF] [Evolution on Web]

Yasuhiro Hashimoto: Growth fluctuation in preferential attachment dynamics, Phys. Rev. E 93, 042130, 2016. [PDF] [Evolution on Web]

Aleksandr Drozd, Olaf Witkowski, Satoshi Matsuoka, Takashi Ikegami: Critical mass in the emergence of collective intelligence: a parallelized simulation of swarms in noisy environments, Artificial Life and Robotics, 21.3: pp.317-323, 2016. [Superorganism]

Olaf Witkowski, Takashi Ikegami : Emergence of Swarming Behavior: Foraging Agents Evolve Collective Motion Based on Signaling, PLoS ONE, 11(4): e0152756, 2016. [PDF] [Superorganism]


Alexander Woodward, Tom Froese, Takashi Ikegami: Neural coordination can be enhanced by occasional interruption of normal firing patterns: A self-optimizing spiking neural network model , Neural Networks, pp.39-46, 2015. [PDF], [Homeostasis]

Takashi Ikegami, Naoto Horibe, and Martin Hanczyc : Potential Memory Effects in Self-Moving Oil Droplets, Int’l Journal of Uncon. Comp, pp.345-355, 2015.


Takashi Ikegami, Mizuki Oka: Massive Data Flows: Self-organization of energy, material, and information flows. 6th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence ICAART 2014, pp. 237-242, 2014. [Superorganism][Evolution on Web][Offloaded Agency]

Mizuki Oka, Hirotake Abe, Takashi Ikegami : Dynamic Homeostasis in Packet Switching Networks, Adaptive Behavior, pp.1-14, 2014. [PDF] [Homeostasis]

Mizuki Oka, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takashi Ikegami : Self-organization on social media: endo-exo bursts and baseline fluctuations, PLoS ONE, 9(10): e109293. doi:10. 1371/journal.pone.0109293, 2014. [PDF] [Superorganism][Evolution on Web]

Tom Froese, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Takashi Ikegami: Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness, Frontier. Psychol., 5 (1061), 2014. [PDF] [Homeostasis][Offloaded Agency]

Eiko Matsuda, Julien Hubert, Takashi Ikegami: A Robotic Approach to Understanding the Role and the Mechanism of Vicarious Trial-And-Error in a T-Maze Task , PLoS ONE, 9(7): e102708, 2014. [PDF] [Offloaded Agency]

Tom Froese, Hiroyuki Iizuka and Takashi Ikegami: Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans: A minimalist virtual reality experiment , Scientific Report. Vol. 4, No. 3672 [PDF] [Offloaded Agency]

Tom Froese, Nathaniel Virgo and Takashi Ikegami: Motility at the Origin of Life: Its Characterization and a Model, Artificial Life. 20(1), pp. 55-76, 2014. [PDF]

Nicholas Tomko, Inman Harvey, Nathaniel Virgo and Andy Philippides: Many Hands Make Light Work: Further Studies in Group Evolution, Artificial Life. 20(1), pp. 163-181, 2014 [PDF] [Superorganism]


Takashi Ikegami, A Design for Living Technology: Experiments with the Mind Time Machine. Artificial Life, Summer/Fall 2013, Vol. 19, No. 3(4), pp. 387-400, 2013. [PDF] [Mind Time Machine]

Mizuki Oka and Takashi Ikegami: Exploring Default Mode and Information Flow on the Web. PLoS ONE, 8(4): e60398, 2013. [PDF] [Evolution on Web]

Tom Froese, Alex Woodward, and Takashi Ikegami: Turing instabilities in biology, culture, and consciousness? On the enactive origins of symbolic material culture Adaptive Behaviors, June 2013 21, pp. 199-214, 2013. [PDF]

Yuki Sato, Hiroyuki Iizuka, and Takashi Ikegami: Investigating Extended Embodiment Using a Computational Model and Human Experimentation Constructivist Foundations 9(1), pp. 73–84, 2013.

Takashi Ikegami: The Self-moving Oil Droplet as a Homeostat Constructivist Foundations 9(1), pp.114, 2013.


Froese, T., Lenay, C. and Ikegami, T: Imitation by social interaction? Analysis of a minimal agent-based model of the correspondence problem. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:202. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00202, 2012.

Ryoko Uno, Keisuke Suzuki, and Takashi Ikegami: An Experimental Approach to Speakers' Perspectives in a Paired Wall Game. Advances in Complex Systems15(3-4): 1150020-1 - 1150020-20, 2012. [PDF]

Geoff Nitschke, Martijn Schut, and Ágoston Eiben: Evolving Team Behaviors with Specialization. Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines. 13(4): 493-536, 2012.

Tom Froese and Thomas Fuchs: The extended body: a case study in the neurophenomenology of social interaction.Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences,Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 205-235, 2012. [PDF]

Tom Froese: From adaptive behavior to human cognition: a review of Enaction. Adaptive Behavior. 11(2): 205-235, 2012. [PDF]

Ryoko Uno, Keisuke Suzuki and Takashi Ikegami: Emergence of Rules or Stories in a Communication System: An Experimental Study Between a Pair of Human Subjects. Advances in Complex Systems.,in press, 2012.

Tom Froese: From Second-order Cybernetics to Enactive Cognitive Science: Varela’s Turn From Epistemology to Phenomenology. Systems Research and Behavioral Science. 28(6): 631-645, 2012. [PDF]


Geoff Nitschke, Martijn Schut, and Ágoston Eiben: Evolving Behavioral Specialization in Robot Teams to Solve a Collective Construction Task. Swarm and Evolutionary Computation. 2(1): 25–38, 2011. [PDF]

Horibe Naoto, Hanczyc M.Martin, and Takashi Ikegami: Mode Switching and Collective Behavior in Chemical Oil Droplets. Entropy. 13(3):709-719, 2011. [PDF]

Tom Froese: Breathing new life into cognitive science. Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard. 2(1): 113-129, 2011. [PDF]

Tom Froese and Ezequiel A. Di Paolo: The Enactive Approach: Theoretical Sketches From Cell to Society. Pragmatics & Cognition. 19(1): 1-36, 2011. [PDF]

Steve Torrance, and Tom Froese: An inter-enactive approach to agency: Participatory sense-making, dynamics, and sociality. Humana.Mente. 15: 21-53, 2011. [PDF]

Eric Silverman, and Takashi Ikegami: Robustness in Artificial Life. Journal of Bio-Inspired Computating. 3(3): 179-186, 2011. [PDF]

Ryoko Uno, Davide Marocco, Stefano Nolfi, Takashi Ikegami: Emergence of Proto-sentences in Artificial Communicating Systems. IEEE Autonomous Mental Development. 3(2): 146-153, 2011. [PDF]


Takashi Ikegami: Studying a self-sustainable system by making a mind time machine.ACM Digital Library. 2010. [PDF]

Keisuke Suzuki and Takashi Ikegami: Adaptability and Homeostasis in the Game of Life interacting with the evolved Cellular Automata. J. Natural Computating Research. 1(3): 40-50, 2010. [PDF]

Kohei Nakajima and Takashi Ikegami: Dynamical Systems Interpretation of Reversal of Subjective Temporal Order Due to Arm Crossing. Adaptive Behavior. 18(3-4): 189-210, 2010. [PDF]

Eric Silverman and Takashi Ikegami: Robustness in Artificial Life. Int. J. Bio-Inspired Computing. 197-203. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010.

Kenta Suzuki and Takashi Ikegami: Allometry and Catastrophic regime shifts in food chains. J. Theor. Biol. 267(1): 121-128, 2010. [PDF]

Martin M. Hanczyc and Takashi Ikegami: Chemical Basis for Minimal Cognition. Artificial Life. 16(3): 233-243, 2010.[PDF]


Taro Toyota, Naoto Maru, Martin M. Hanczyc, Takashi Ikegami, and Tadashi Sugawara: Self-Propelled Oil Droplets Consuming “Fuel” Surfactant. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(14):5012-5013, 2009. [PDF]

Jean-Julien Aucouturier and Takashi Ikegami: The Illusion of Agency: Two Engineering Approaches to Compromise Autonomy and Reactivity in an Artificial System. Adaptive Behavior. 17(5): 402-420, 2009. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami: Rehabilitating Biology as a Natural History. Adaptive Behavior. 17(4): 325-328, 2009. [PDF]

Keisuke Suzuki and Takashi Ikegami: Shapes and Self-movements in Autopoietic Cell Systems. Artificial Life. 15(1): 59-70, 2009. [PDF]

Martin M. Hanczyc and Takashi Ikegami: Protocells as smart agents for architectural design. Technoetic Arts. 7(2): 117-120, 2009.

Takashi Ikegami and Martin M. Hanczyc: The search for a First Cell under the Maximalism Design Principle.Technoetic Arts. 7(2): 153-164, 2009. [PDF]


Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Yuta Ogai, and Takashi Ikegami: Using chaos to trade-off synchronization and autonomy in a dancing robot. in Trends and Controversies (Aucouturier, J.-J., ed.). IEEE Intelligent Systems. 23(2), 2008. [PDF]

Hisanano Takahashi, Naoto Horibe, Masakazu Shimada, and Takashi Ikegami: Analyzing the House Fly's Exploratory Behavior with Autoregression Methods. J. Phys. Soc. Japan. 77(8): 084802, 2008. [PDF]

Yuta Ogai and Takashi Ikegami: Microslip as a Simulated Artificial Mind. Adaptive Behavior. 16(2-3): 129-147, 2008.[PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Keisuke Suzuki: From a Homeostatic to a Homeodynamic Self. BioSystems. 91(2): 388-400, 2008.[PDF]


Takashi Ikegami: Simulating Active Perception and Mental Imagery with Embodied Chaotic Itinerancy. J. Consciousness Studies. 14(7): 111-125, 2007. [PDF]

Fukui S., Fukatsu T., Ikegami T., Shimada M.: Endosymbiosis as a Compact Ecosystem with Material Cycling: Parasitism or Mutualism? J. Theor. Biol. 246(4): 746-754, 2007. [PDF]

Kazutoshi Sasahara and Takashi Ikegami: Evolution of Birdsong Syntax by Interjection Communication. Artificial Life.13(3): 259-277, 2007.

Takashi Ikegami and Hiroyuki Iizuka: Turn-taking Interaction as a Cooperative and Co-creative Process. Infant Behavior and Development. 30(2): 278-288, 2007. [PDF]

Martin M. Hanczyc, Taro Toyota, Takashi Ikegami, Norman Packard and Tadashi Sugawara: Chemistry at the oil-water interface: Self-propelled oil droplets. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(30): 9386 - 9391, 2007. [PDF]


Taro Toyota, Hirotastu Tsuha, Koji Yamada, Katsuo Takakura, Takashi Ikegami and Tadashi Sugawara: Listeria-like motion of oil droplets. Chemistry Letters. 35(7), 708-709, 2006. [PDF]

Keisuke Suzuki and Takashi Ikegami: Spatial Pattern Induced Evolution of Self-replicating Loop Network. Artificial Life. 12(4), 461-485, 2006. [PDF]

Hiroshi C. Ito and Takashi Ikegami: Food-web Formation with Recursive Evolutionary Branching. J. Theor. Biol. 238(1), 1-10, 2006. [PDF]


Takashi Ikegami: Neutral Phenotypes as Network Keystone Species. J. Population Ecology. 47(1): 21-29, 2005. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami: Dynamical Categories and Language. Behavioral Brain Science. 28(4):500, 2005.

Gen Masumoto, Takashi Ikegami A New formalization of a meta-game using the lambda calculus. BioSystems. 80. pp219-231. 2005.[PDF]


Asaki Saito, Makoto Taiji and Takashi Ikegami: Inaccessibility in Online Learning of Recurrent Neural Networks. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93: 168101, 2004. [PDF]

Yuzuru Sato and Takashi Ikegami Undecidability in the Imitation Game. Minds and Machines 14: 133-143, 2004.[PDF]

Hiroyuki Iizuka and Takashi Ikegami Simulated autonomous coupling in discrimination of light frequencies.Connection Science, 17: 283-299, 2004. [PDF]

Hiroyuki Iizuka and Takashi Ikegami,Adaptability and Diversity in Simulated Turn-taking Behavior. Artificial Life 10: 361-378, 2004. [PDF]


Takashi Ikegami, Gentaro Morimoto Chaotic Itinerancy in Coupled Dynamical Recognizers. CHAOS 13:1133-1147, 2003. [PDF]


Etsushi Nameda, Toru Ohira, and Takashi Ikegami Dynamical systems's approach to the Busy Beaer ProblemComputer Phys. Comm. 147: 637-640, 2002. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Koh Hashimoto: Dynamical Systems Approach to Higher-level Heritability J. Biol. Phys. 28: 799-804,2002. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Jun Tani: Chaotic itinerancy needs embodied cognition to explain memory dynamics. BBS 24 (5): 818-819, 2001.[PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Koh Hashimoto: Emergence of a New Attracting Set by a Mixed Strategy in Game Dynamics, J. Phys. Soc. Japan. 3221-3224, 2002.[PDF]


Mark A. Bedau, John S. McCaskill, Norman H. Packard, Steen Rasmussen, Chris Adami, David G. Green, Takashi Ikegami, Kunihiko Kaneko, and Thomas S. Ray.:Open Problems in Artificial Life. Artificial Life 6(4): 363-376,2001. [PDF]

Koh Hashimoto and Takashi Ikegami: Heteroclinic Chaos, Chaotic Itinerancy and Neutral Attractors in Symmetrical Replicator Equations with Mutations j. Phys. Soc. Japan. 70:349-352,2001. [PDF]


Yuzuru Sato and Takashi Ikegami: Nonlinear computation with switching map systems, J. UCS, 6(9):881,2000.[PDF]

Kouji Harada and Takashi Ikegami: Evolution of Specificity in an Immune Network, j. theor.biol. 203 :439-449, 2000.[PDF]

Naoaki Ono and Takashi Ikegami: Self-maintenance and Self-reproduction in an Abstract Cell Model J.Theor. Biol.206: 243-253, 2000. [PDF]


Takashi Ikegami: Evolvability of Machines and Tapes, J. Artificial Life and Robotics 3(4):242-245,1999.[PDF]

Makoto Taiji and Takashi Ikegami: Dynamics of internal models in game players Physica D, 134:253-266. 1999. [PDF]

Yuzuru Sato, Makoto Taiji and Takashi Ikegami: NP-completeness of kSAT and multifractals Computer Physics Comm.121-122:51-53, 1999.[PDF]

Before 1998

Masanao Matsushima and Takashi Ikegami: Evolution of Strategies in the three-person Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game journal of theoretical biology 195: 53-67, 1998.

Shin I. Nishimura and Takashi Ikegami: Emergence of Collective strategies in a prey-predator game model Artificial Life Journal 3(4): 243-260, 1998. [PDF]

Takashi Hashimoto and Takashi Ikegami: Emergence of Net-grammar in Communicationg Agents BioSystems 38:1-14, 1996.[PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Takashi Hashimoto: Active Mutation in Self-Reproducing Networks of Machines and Tapes.Artificial Life 2: 305-318, 1995.[PDF]

Takashi Ikegami: From Genetic Evolution to Emergence of Game Strategies Physica D 75:310-327, 1994. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Kunihiko Kaneko: Evolution of Host-parasitoid network through Homeochaotic Dynamics.CHAOS 2: 397-408, 1992.[PDF]

Kunihiko Kaneko and Takashi Ikegami: Homeochaos: Dynamical stability of Symbiotic Network with Population Dynamics and Evolving Mutation Rates. Physica D 56:406-429, 1992.[PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Ichiro Tsuda :Measuring Complexity : A relative aspect of pattern recognition Int'l. J. Mod. Phys. C 3:447-458, 1992.[URL]

Takashi Ikegami and Kunihiko Kaneko: Genetic Fusion Phys. Rev. Lett. 65:3352-3355, 1990. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Kunihiko Kaneko: Computer Symbiosis-- Emergence of Symbiotic Behavior Through Evolution.Physica D 42:235-243, 1990.[PDF]

Takashi Ikegami :Dynamical Behaviors of the Immune Network. Prog.Theor.Phys. 81:309-320, 1989. [PDF]

Takashi Ikegami and Suzuki, M.: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of a Plastic Network System Prog.Theor.Phys. 78:38-50, 1987.[PDF]